Battles of the Gulf War
From the Allied point of view, the Gulf War consisted of two main phases:
During the air phase, Britain's major contribution was made by the Royal Air Force (RAF). In particular, Tornadoes performed many low-level attacks on Iraqi airbases using the JP233 runway denial weapon as well as unguided ("dumb") bombs. After the loss of 5 Tornadoes in low-level missions, and since the Iraqi air force had soon been largely destroyed or fled to neighbouring Iran, the Tornadoes switched to medium-level strike using laser-guided bombs, with the help of designators that had been hastily added to the Tornadoes themselves, or with the help of Buccaneers serving in the laser-designation role.
The Royal Navy also made a significant contribution to Allied efforts in the early stages of the war. In particular, Royal Navy Lynx helicopters were responsible for the destruction of almost the entire Iraqi Navy. Additionally, Royal Navy minehunters cleared Iraqi mines near the Kuwaiti coast, allowing the US battleships Wisconsin and Missouri to move in close enough to launch devasting bombardments against Iraqi ground forces.
During the ground phase, the British 1st Armoured Division took part in the gigantic right-hook which outflanked Iraqi forces. British Challenger tanks destroyed approximately 300 Iraqi vehicles, including achieving the longest-range tank-kill in history. Tragically, a friendly fire incident, when an American A-10A aircraft attacked two British Warrior vehicles, resulted in the deaths of 9 British service personnel.
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